Wednesday 22 July 2015

Acacia trees and nostalgia

This post is a footnote to the point already made by Columbia PhD student @SimonMStevens (which I saw via Africa is a Country), about the ubiquity of the acacia tree silhouetted against an orange sky on the covers of works of African literature.

I had my interest piqued by the collage Simon put together, and I wondered about what might be revealed by further comparison with non-fiction books on the topic of 'Africa'. Because of my research interests, I narrowed my search to include books only about Kenya. Here is what I found:


The majority of the covers of non-fiction books I saw conformed to the stereotypes that were suggested by the original post. There was more variety in the book covers than I was expecting, but a number of commonalities emerged.

In the above collage, aside from the acacia trees and sunsets, there are also numerous elephants and giraffes; and any African people who are pictured are what might be described as dressed stereotypically 'traditionally' * (notably the depictions of Masai men on the covers of Corinne Hofmann's memoirs, in the bottom right of the collage, which seem to refer to the British colonial perception and treatment of Masai people as noble savages).

In addition to the images used on the covers, I think it is interesting to note the use of Kiswahili words and phrases in the book titles (i.e. kwa heri, jambo, mzungu). These titles in part serve to establish the (white-western) author as an authoritative source of information on Kenya.


A sub-genre of non-fiction books about Kenya are those which deal with animals, safaris, conservation, and veterinary medicine; or (auto)biographies of people who worked in these fields. Born Free is the most famous example of these. Interestingly, although animals feature more frequently and more prominently on these covers (with good reason), the overall look is not that different to the non-fiction books about Kenya in the previous collage. Note the dominance of orange and yellow tones, and more sunsets, and yet more tree silhouettes.

On these book covers, white people are depicted communing with animals as their equals, in ways that remind me of Binyavanga Wainaina's observations in 'How to Write About Africa' (which is always relevant, afaiac): “Animals ... must be treated as well-rounded, complex characters. They speak ... and have names, ambitions and desires. ... conservationists are Africa's most important people...” (2005: 94).


A further interesting sub-set of non-fiction books about Kenya are the colonial biographies and memoirs.** While faded portraits and black and white photographs have largely replaced the sunny photos of animals (but the two are combined on the cover of the Elspeth Huxley biography), on the whole little has changed.

In this sub-category, book cover designs depart from the orange-sky-and-acacia-tree template to the extent that they recall the glamour and romance of the 1920s & 30s in the faded photographs they use. These photos are suffused with what Particia Lorcin identifies as imperial and colonial nostalgia.

In colonial contexts, nostalgia transcended/transcends individual loss and longing to incorporate a more collective sense of “resistance of tradition to modernity” (Lorcin 2012: 9). Imperial nostalgia allows the British Empire to be remembered as a glorious period, while conveniently forgetting the violence that produced and sustained it -- while colonial nostalgia mourns and longs for a “vanishing Africa”, an “epic pioneering past”, or a gone-but-not-forgotten Britain (Lorcin 2012: 125, 159, 161).

These senses of nostalgia, located by Lorcin in fictional and non-fictional writing in a range of genres, are palpable in the images on the covers of these colonial biographies and memoirs. But such nostalgia is also traceable on the covers of the other books pictured, despite the books' focus on more recent times, particularly in the empty landscapes, a romantic vision of an Africa that might soon be (has been?) effaced by modernity.

* Noting that, of course, the idea of 'traditional' is highly contested and somewhat unhelpful - I use the word here to denote what I perceive to be the designers'/publishers' idea of African peoples' non-European/non-Western attire and self-presentation.

** Laibon is perhaps a more rigorous academic piece of work than the other books here, but it is included since the point is not to judge the book by its cover (ha).

Particia Lorcin (2012). Historicizing Colonial Nostalgia: European Women's Narratives of Algeria and Kenya 1900-Present. Palgrave Macmillan.

Binyavanga Wainaina (2005). ‘How to write about Africa.’ Granta: The Magazine of New Writing 92: The View from Africa, 92-95.

Monday 16 June 2014

Research posters

Research posters in the humanities

A couple of months ago, I was asked to produce a research poster to be presented at the conference Troubling Narratives: Identity Matters. I was a little sad that I wouldn't get the opportunity to listen to the sound of my own voice at this particular event, but I was intrigued - never before had I attempted making a research poster.

Since it was my first time, I dug around online for some advice about content, layout, and so on, but I was somewhat surprised to find few resources aimed specifically at students in humanities disciplines. Of course there is a reason for this, which is that the majority of research posters are produced in non-humanities disciplines. In the sciences, geography, statistics, and any discipline where quantitative data is used, it makes sense for research findings to be communicated visually through diagrams, tables, and graphs.

On the other end of the spectrum, in the arts images are highly likely to be relevant to the research- often being or directly representing the subject of the study -meaning that posters are a natural format for disseminating research. Humanities that are not arts (by which I mean philosophy, religion, history, theory, etc) are less likely to be engaged in the study of something that can be photographed or plotted on a graph. This doesn't mean that research posters are impossible or irrelevant for those of us in humanities subjects. It does mean that the advice given to scientists or students of the arts are not necessarily helpful to us.

So, now having been through the whole process of designing and producing my own research poster, I thought that somebody out there might benefit from me sharing what I have learned through the process. This advice is aimed at those like me: theorists, scholars of religion and law and history, philosophers, and other difficult academic creatures.

1. Beginning steps

Write your paper.
Assuming that you haven't already completely finished writing your paper, do this first. Write it as if you were going to distribute it amongst the conference participants in advance, with all the academic furniture in its proper place (footnotes, citations, etc). I think that writing the paper and then extracting the juiciest bits of writing and argumentation from it, and putting them in poster form, is the most effective approach. I tried to write my paper and design my poster simultaneously, but I do not recommend it.

Choose the message.
This is the hard part, because this is where you decide the main thrust of your poster (well OK, perhaps it's the second hardest part after finishing writing your paper). Your chosen 'message' should inform your decisions on the poster's content, for example, it could be your original contribution to your field, or the main conclusion of this piece of research.
I think this is something I really failed to do, and as a result my poster doesn't communicate one easily summarised idea. But I think it would've been possible to achieve this in my poster if I had prioritised it.

Excerpt and structure.
Now select the text you want to use in your poster; I found it particularly useful to choose summary paragraphs and concluding sentences. You will probably want to divide the content of your poster into sections, similarly to how you have structured your paper, with an abstract, an introduction, a few sections of argument, and a conclusion of sorts. The main difference is that you won't have the space on your poster for much detail or background information.

Choose a title.
This is not necessarily the same title you gave your paper. Shorter the better, so you can use a large font size – the general consensus seems to be about 72pt for an A1-sized poster.

2. From paper to poster

Usually you will be expected to produce an A1-size poster, and while I was advised that I could orient my design either landscape- or portrait-wise I suppose some conference organisers might specify one way or the other. Check.

Having already decided what bits of your paper to use in your poster, it will nonetheless take some time to transfer the text across to the poster and to edit it down to an appropriate word count. My poster totalled just less than 1,000 words -excluding acknowledgements and a brief bibliography (six references)- but I have a feeling it might still be too 'wordy'. I have read somewhere that the ideal word count for a poster is about 800.
One solution for simplifying the content of your poster without cutting too many words, is to structure each section with both a heading and a leading statement that is visually distinguished from the main body text somehow, whether it is bold or in a larger font. This is another strategy I didn't use, but I could have done so to communicate a more linear argument.

What counts as a relevant image will obviously depend on the content of the poster. This element of the design posed the greatest challenge for me because I wasn't sure what kinds of images would be appropriate on a poster about narratives of racial and religious identity... In the end I decided on a mixture of the following: a map, two portraits, a book cover, my own photo from fieldwork, a historical photo, and photos from YWCA brochures.
It is of course better to use hi-res images (300dpi or higher) but I was forced to use lower quality images because I scanned them from poorly-printed low-res originals, and there were no alternatives. Having seen the results once printed, I'm happy because they are images I couldn't get elsewhere- so use your judgement.

3. Finishing touches

Some people can do design and others can't. Maybe you can get help from a friend and acknowledge their input (?? I guess this isn't allowed in a competition). Apart from that, there are a number of really cool tools available for free online. Personally I used OpenOffice Impress (which is essentially a free version of PowerPoint), and took design inspiration from the templates available at Canva (although the templates there aren't aimed at academics and they aren't A1-size).

If you live near to your university's print centre then you can use that, but I don't so I was forced to look elsewhere. Online, I found that Staples does A1 poster printing but at £24.99 for one poster, it wasn't attractive – especially as I would have to travel to Staples to pick it up (for me that means public transport, a risky proposition when carrying precious cargo). StuPrint sounded as if it was aimed at students but at £28.00 it wasn't cheaper, and express delivery would have been an extra £8.00.
Eventually I found A1 Posters, a company based in Wales. I paid £27.96 for two full-colour A1 prints (£9.23 each, plus £9.50 for FedEx) which arrived at my doorstep the next working day, rolled in a sturdy tube. The posters look great and I'd definitely recommend the service, especially if you're in a rush.

The finished product:

Most useful links

The Scientist's Guide to Poster Design (Kate Everson): This is an excellent resource, and although aimed at scientists it's still a great place to start.

Pimp my Poster (flickr): for example posters.

Poster and Presentation Resources (University of North Carolina Graduate School): A seemingly comprehensive list of online resources for creating research posters.

Creating Large Format Posters Using PowerPoint (Wake Forest Baptist Medical Centre): Step-by-step instructions for using Microsoft PowerPoint to design large posters.

Creating effective poster presentations (North Carolina State University): Detailed instructions, but aimed at those working in sciences/with quantitative data.

QR Stuff: Website to create a QR code that you can add to your poster to link to your blog/website/twitter etc.

Tuesday 3 December 2013


Why I was on strike

I don't usually speak. It's not a straightforward lack of confidence: I usually feel pretty confident, and I have no problem talking to a group, or asserting myself with strangers. But, when it comes to speaking out about something I actually believe in or care about, I just don't speak up in public. It's probably as a result of being shamed for being clever throughout my formative years, which trained me to be quiet, hide my opinion, and feign stupidity (all strategies for avoiding unwanted attention). In these ways, I am not always a good academic, although I'm always benefitting in hundreds of ways, large and small, from being an academic: Teaching, reading, thinking, writing, presenting and explaining my research.

I mention all of this only as a prelude to the following essay, which has been prompted by today's strike action for fair pay in Higher Education, in which I took part. I stood on the picket line from 8:00am-11:30am outside my university, SOAS. When I'm not teaching or writing my PhD there, I work in a newsagent's. In my capacity as the person who stands behind the till, I have quite a lot of experience in opening conversations with people I don't know. My usual approach to anyone who appears to be over the age of forty is to keep it quite formal, and I employed the same approach whilst on strike, since I presume that getting people to stop and listen to you is easier if they think you're an alright person. So that's what I did today. "Good morning," I said to a grey-business man as he advanced towards me. He looked me right in the eyes, inexplicably angry, and without breaking his stride he spat at me: "I HOPE YOU GET RAINED ON!!" crossed the line, and hurried inside.

To that man, on the extremely slim chance you read this: Don't be an abusive bumhat to people who are spending part of their otherwise productive working day outside in the freezing cold, just to get their employer to acknowledge that it might be a good idea to pay a fair wage. You may disagree with the politics of a strike, you may disagree with the concept of fair wages, but either way, you don't get to behave as though you are a superior species. I didn't get chance to say that at the time so it feels good to get that off my chest. I don't usually speak: I am not the sort of person who writes a blog post about every single thing that happens to me. Today is different, and this essay is about something that has become the defining feature of my life: financing my PhD.

The story actually starts before I was born. Neither of my parents went to university, and I was the first in my mum's side of the family to do so. This meant that I had no concrete expectations about what university life would or should be- in particular, I did not know about getting funding. Obviously, I got a loan from the Student Loans Company, but it wasn't until I was well into my (part-time self-funded) MSc that I found out I could have applied for grants and/or scholarships. Neither the former polytechnic where I took my undergraduate degree (first class honours), nor the Russell Group institution where I did my masters, had the slightest interest in how I was funding my current or future studies.
Of course, had I the faintest idea that it was something I was able or expected to do, I could easily have researched sources of funding. My point is that a combination of my life experiences and lack of guidance meant that I literally didn't know it was possible for me to apply for a scholarship or a grant. Working class and lower-middle class kids and their families can be completely clueless about the inner workings of the behemoth that is the higher education-bureaucracy. Our class is no longer a formal barrier to higher education, but our cluelessness still disadvantages us, compared to parents who can draw on their personal experience, or pupils at schools that invest time in preparing them for university.

Since graduating in 2007, I have worked to fund my studies; but since about 2010 my part-time wages haven't even covered the cost of living. So I've taken loans, more-or-less cancelled my social life, sponged off the overwhelming generosity of my family, got a credit card, extended my overdraft... I have scraped the bottom of the barrel so many times that it has almost worn away. And I am so, so lucky to have had access to any kind of barrel for scraping. (My parents have remortgaged their house several times to support their children. But what happens to the children of those who don't own their home?) After living this way for three years, I am now making a last-ditch effort: taking a year out from my studies to try to earn the money that will allow me to complete my PhD. The risk of this strategy is that if I'm not able to afford my fees in September 2014, the university won't let me go back to finish my doctorate. Ever.

In short: I've had to fund my studies without support from the institutions that, in theory, exist to support high-achieving students- even though I have always been a high-achieving student (I was a boffin at school- see my prelude, above). As a more-or-less direct result of that lack of funding, I'm now experiencing some relatively serious cash-flow problems, like 99% of the country. What do I want? Sympathy? I do realise how whiny this may sound: 'Woe is me, with my university education and my first world problems. My diamond shoes are too tight.' Well, I'm not asking for your sympathy. My contention is that my problems are not my own, that my situation is just one illustration of some of the problems within Higher Education in the UK.*  These are not problems that can be considered or solved an individual basis. Rather, my personal academic-financial crisis should be considered as a result of the recession, the subsequent cuts to the higher education budget, and the consequences this is having for the employment prospects of PhD students and so-called 'early career researchers,' many of whom might as well be called 'potential-career researchers' (or 'unemployed').

This is the current situation and the immediate future at which many current and recent PhD students are balking, and/or crying. The PhD is basically the gateway to working as an academic: it's a vocational qualification as much as anything else. What getting a PhD involves, essentially, is two years of expensive and masochistic training, possibly including field research, then wading through the aptly-named valley of shit, trying but probably failing to publish in a respected journal, finally finishing your thesis, passing your viva, and spending 3 to 12 months on corrections. All this, whilst surviving hand-to-mouth on a combination of freeganism, Poundland-sourced caffeine, and eating the envelopes in which the utilities companies send their notices of final warning. Your family will not hear from you except when you need an emergency cash injection, you can say goodbye to your previous level of health and fitness for it will go into a fast and steep decline, and you will no longer have any friends outside the university.

If you are not a PhD student, just take notice of the mental fatigue you have suffered from just reading my highly detailed and accurate account of academic life, and you will come close to understanding how hard it is to do a PhD. Imagine now, that after all that work, that you actually become Dr Whomever: PhD students are being told that in the current climate we probably won't find a job in higher education for at least six months - it's probably more like a matter of years. When we do get an academic job, it will probably be teaching on a 'zero-hours' and/or temporary contract, and we may only be paid for the hours we spend in the classroom (not for preparation, marking etc)... a bit like the jobs we already have in fact. We will remain junior staff members well into our forties and have little job security before then. To add to our already-high stress levels, we will probably have at least £10,000 of personal debt (I will have about £22,000). The knock-on effects may mean not being able to afford a mortgage, or not having enough money to have children or get married in the way we want to (NB. that one is not a problem for me), and almost certainly nothing left at the end of the month for savings or a private pension. And just to be absolutely clear: I'm talking about the jobs we will be getting for the 10 years after we fucking graduate. Morale among the PhD students with whom I am acquainted is quite low, as if there are beatings scheduled on a regular basis for the next decade.

With things the way they are now, our already precarious positions are not likely to become significantly more stable unless we are (individually) very, very lucky. This is the situation into which today's strike attempts to intervene. The strike is part of an ongoing pay dispute between the unions and UCEA, over the former's rejection of the latter's offer of a paltry 1% pay increase, and the former's justified rejection of that offer. The unions' demand is for an increase of 3.1%, which seems modest when the current rates of pay are effectively 13% lower than four years ago, UK universities have over £1 billion in the bank, and the cost of living is up by 15%. If the unions succeed and are able to negotiate a greater pay increase, not only will current academic staff benefit. Such a victory might make it easier for the unions to negotiate for similar pay increases in further and higher education in the future.

Whether or not this industrial action is successful, it is ethically, politically, and ideologically necessary as a demand that the labour of academics should be recognised for the benefits it actually brings to society. That education is a good in its own right has become something of a truism thanks to its prominence in the rhetoric of recent student protests. Nevertheless, certainly it is true for me- and accepting its truth requires the acknowledgement that learning doesn't stop at or after the PhD stage. Actually, the more highly-qualified members of a university community are also still learning- and without them (teaching fellows, lecturers, professors), there wouldn't be any education because there wouldn't be anyone to do the teaching.

What I would like to see is a higher education system based on the principle of education as a good to which anyone and everyone has access, certainly not privatised or managed for-profit. A fair wage for academics should obviously be a living wage, but it should also reward the long years of hard work that are spent achieving the necessary expertise and qualifications. It would be enough to allow for the repayment of any debts incurred en route- as with surgeons, lawyers, engineers, musicians, etc. After all, regardless of whether a surgeon is "really" more valuable to society than an academic, for surgeons to exist there need to be universities full of academics who can teach them (not only medicine itself but the history of medicine, bioethics, medical anthropology...). Unfortunately, I think that our dedication to education might be one of the reasons why the university system is able to take academics for granted. We would do the teaching out of love for our students and we do our research for love of our topics and disciplines. We are still there in universities and colleges, making our contribution, even though we are not very well paid. That is why I joined the union, and that is why I was on strike. I refuse to allow myself, or my brilliant and passionate colleagues, to be exploited.

* Other problems in UK HE sector include: 1. That it's a "sector" now. 2. Ancient campuses and buildings that "cannot" be adapted to make them accessible to disabled students. 2. Institutional racism. Only 8% of UK professors are black or from an ethnic minority background. Even scholars of Africa are unlikely to be from Africa (for example: me). 3. Privatisation of various functions of universities (halls of residence, catering & cleaning, even student debt) when their status is as public institutions. Feel free to add to this list.